For the first time in twelve years, an outbreak of polio has struck China, infecting nine people in Xinjiang and inciting a furious scramble to vaccinate Xinjiang’s at-risk migrant children. The vaccination campaign targets 3.8 million children under 15 in the outbreak area, and children younger than five in other areas of Xinjiang, as six of the nine cases are under three years old. A spooked Shanghai has also stepped up its screening procedures, requiring vaccinations for all children who did not receive them after an outbreak. Recent tests conducted on the Xinjiang polio virus have linked it to a strain currently ravaging Pakistan, which has seen over 80 confirmed cases just this year. Interestingly, China’s last polio epidemic spawned when an man from another neighbor, India, carried the virus into the country in 1999. According to Oliver Rosenbauer of the World Health Organization, the strain’s rapid spread can be attributed to its extreme virulence. And if that isn’t fear-inducing enough, this particular virus also poses a higher risk of paralysis than other strains.